2017 • No. 4 • Iss. 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Agletdinov V.V., Voropaev V.A., Molotov I.E., Mokhnatkin A.V., Andrievsky S.M. Recent results of the large space debris modernised tracking telescope in the North Caucasus

Aksenov O.Y., Veniaminov S.S., Yakubovskiy S.V. Possibilities of the BMEWS radars for detecting space debris

Aleshin V.P. Scientific visualization in near-Earth astronomy

Babkin Yu.V., Yakubovsky S.V. Monitoring of space objects in medium Earth orbit with early-warning radar

Batmunkh N. Estimate of short-periodic perturbations in a problem of celestial mechanics

Veniaminov S.S. Propagation of solar activity using the block approximation method, generalized weighed root-mean-square methods and revealing latent periodicities methods

Vinogradova T.A. Role of the Lidov–Kozai mechanism in transformation of high-inclined asteroids into near-Earth objects

Guo Peng, Ivashkin V.V., Stikhno C.A. An analysis of the trajectories set structure for the asteroid Apophis probable impact with the Earth in 2036

Egorova L.A., Lokhin V.V. Explosion-like distruction of meteoroid

Korobtsev I.V., Mishina M.N. Investigation of photometrical parameters features of space objects over a wide range of phase angles

Kokhirova G.I., Babadzhanov P.B., Khamroev U.Kh., Kholshevnikov K.V., Milanov D.V. Identifying celestial bodies of common origin using metric approach

Kuznetsov V.B. The determination of preliminary orbit from two series of observations by the continuation method with optimal parametrization

Kuznetsov E.D., Safronova V.S. Using of metrics in the space of orbits to searching for asteroids on close orbits

Lang Anqi, Ivashkin V.V. An analysis of space trajectories characteristics for the Earth–Apophis–Earth mission

Lukyanov A.P., Gundrova E.I., Ravdin S.S., Pruglo A.V., Vyhristenko A.M. A generalized model of luminosity of space objects for improving the efficiency of observation planning, and experiments on model’s formation in the Tiraspol observatory

Molotov I.E., Voropaev V.A., Yudin A.N., Ivanov D.E., Aistov E.A., Borovin G.K. Optical complexes for monitoring of the near-Earth space

Murtazov A.K., Efimov A.V. Comparison of the basalt spectra with the spectra of stony asteroids and meteorites

Safarov A.G. Conditions for educational anomalous tail of comet

Sokolov L.L., Vasil’ev A.A., Petrov N.A., Pol V.G., Eskin B.B. Possibilities of asteroid deflection from collisions having regard to the resonant returns

Khutorovsky Z.N., Lukyanov A.P., Shilin V.D., Kolessa A.E., Shpitalnik M.Ts., Sorokin K.V. Analysis of Contribution of optical observatories of Russian Academy of Sciences to space surveillance in 2016–2017

Scherbina M.P., Busarev V.V., Barabaniv S.I. Spectrophotometric study of asteroids in 2016 and interpretation of their reflectance spectra

Yakovenko Y.P., Kuleshov Y.P., Mishechkina N.B. Assessing the feasibility of asteroid surveillance using visualization diagram of Bowell formula

 

ABSTRACTS

Subjects: physics

Agletdinov V.V.1, Voropaev V.A.1, Molotov I.E.1, Mokhnatkin A.V.1, Andrievsky S.M.2
Recent results of the large space debris modernised tracking telescope in the North Caucasus
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 7-11.

A relatively large aperture optical telescope for monitoring increasing debris population in a geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and a highly elliptical orbit (HEO) was recently repaired and renovated at the Peak Terskol Observatory after the long period of inactivity. The instrument placement at an altitude of 3100 meters provides pristine seeing conditions during on an average 1000 hours per year (about 1500 clear hours in general). This 80-cm telescope K-800, initially Cassegrain, was rebuilt for the observations in the prime focus with CCD technique due to the joint efforts of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) project and the Astronomical Observatory of Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University.Presently, the instrument with a 228 cm focal length, provided by the large-format $3k\times 3k$ CCD camera with 12 $\mu $m pixel pitch, has enlarged 55 arc minutes field of view and is able to detect up to 19$^\text{th}$ magnitude GEO and HEO objects using few second exposures in $2\times 2$ binning readout mode. To summarise, the instrument has unique specifications for its location. Moreover, the K-800 telescope is still under rebuilding, thus further enhancement is expected.

Keywords: telescope, modernisation, observation statistics, space debris, GEO, HEO, observation automation, image processing

» Affiliations
2 Scientific Research Institute Astronomical Observatory of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov\ National University, Odessa, Ukraine
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: artspace3@mail.ru
» References
  1. Molotov I. E., Agapov V. M., Ibragimov M. A. et al. Global’naya sistema monitoringa geostacionarnoj orbity [The global system for the geostationary orbit monitoring]. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii «Okolozemnaya astronomiya-2007». Nal’chik: Izd. M. i V. Kotlyarovy [Transactions of the International Conference Near-Earth Astronomy-2017. Nalchik: M. and. V. Kotlyarovy], 2008, pp. 309–314. (In Russian)
  2. Molotov I., Agapov V., Makarov Yu. et al. EOP-1/EOP-2 mini-observatories for space debris observations: characteristics, tasks and first results of operation. Proceedings of the 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, 2014, ISSN 1995-6258, IAC-14, A6, 1, 4, x23058, 4 pages.
  3. Andrievsky S. M., Molotov I. E., Fashchevsky N. N. et al. A new 800 mm automatic telescope. Odessa Astronomical Publications, 2013, vol. 26/1, pp. 6–25.
  4. Octavi F., Jorge N., Luis M. J. et al. Telescope Fabra ROA Montsec: A New Robotic Wide Field Baker-Nunn Facility. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Pacific, 2013, vol. 125, issue 927, p. 522.
  5. Molotov I.E., Agapov V.M., Kouprianov V.V. et al. Nauchnaya set’ opticheskikh instrumentov dlya astrometricheskikh i fotometricheskikh nablyudeniy [Scientific network of optical instruments for astrometric and photometric observations]. Izvestiya Glavnoy astronomicheskoy observatorii v Pulkove [Transactions of the Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo], 2009, no. 219, iss. 1, pp. 233–248. (In Russian)
  6. Rusakov O.P., Kouprianov V.V. Ustroystvo dlya sinkhronizatsii nablyudeniy so sluzhboy tochnogo vremeni GPS na baze modulya “Trimble Resolution T” [Device for synchronization of observations with service of GPS precise time on base of “Trimble Resolution T” module]. Radiotekhnicheskiye tetradi [Radio Engineering Notebooks], 2008, no. 36, p. 25. (In Russian)
  7. Kouprianov V.V. Astrometricheskaya reduktsiya PZS-obzorov oblasti GSO v sisteme APEX II [Astrometric reduction of CCD surveys of the GEO region using the APEX II software toolkit]. Radiotekhnicheskiye tetradi [Radio Engineering Notebooks], 2008, no. 36, pp. 34–35. (In Russian)

 

Subjects: physics

Aksenov O.Y.1, Veniaminov S.S.1, Yakubovskiy S.V.1
Possibilities of the BMEWS radars for detecting space debris
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 12-19.

The program of development of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) radars envisions creation of the far detection radars at new sites, as well as replacement and upgrade of functioning ones. The choice of composition and structure of the BMEWS radar alignment, the sites for radars, and size and orientation of operation ranges is determined by the designation of BMEWS. After putting the new radars into operation in 2016 the BMEWS radar field became continuous and compact. This has led to enhancement of possibilities of observation of space objects (SO) in the near-Earth space (including debris fluxes). At present, as the information basis of the BMEWS radar field are created and upgraded by the high factory completeness technology radars of different frequency bands. Now the BMEWS radar alignment generates some 150,000 observation messages per day and sends them toRussian Space Surveillance System (RSSS). The trackable orbits are in the range of 100 through 400 km and using a special observation mode– up to 40,000 km. The values of tracked SOs’ radar cross section are in the range of 1 to 100 m$^2$. In the paper, the possibilities of the up-to-date BMEWS radar field are analyzed and some experimental data on its operation in the interests of detection and tracking of low-Earth and high SOs is given.Some aspects of using the BMEWS information for performing the tasks of surveillance of the cubes ats group launch, monitoring of the atmosphere state and others.

Keywords: Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, Space Surveillance System, continuous radar field, space debris, factory completeness technology, radar cross section, space object, monitoring, space weather.

» Affiliations
1 Scientific Research Center `Kosmos’, Ministry of Defence, Moscow, 129345, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: sveniami@gmail.com
» References
  1. Aksenov O.Yu., Veniaminov S.S., Yakubovskiy S.V. Vozmozhnosti radiolokatsionnykh sredstv sistemy preduprezhdeniya o raketnom napadenii po obnaruzheniyu kosmicheskikh ob”ektov [The radar capabilities of the missile attack warning system for the detection of space objects. In the collection]. In: “Okolozemnaya astranomiya-2015” Trudy mezhdunar. konf. 31 avgusta – 5 sentyabrya 2015 g. p. Terskol [Proc. of the Intern. conf. “Near-Earth astronomy-2015”, August 31 – September 5, 2015, Terskol]. Moscow, Yanus-K Pub., 2015, pp. 256–260. (In Russian)
  2. Zherebtsov G.A., Zavorin A.V., Kurkin V.I., Medvedev A.V., Potekhin A.P., Berngardt O.I., Vasiliev R.V., Kushnarev D.S., Lebedev V.P., Shpynev B.G., Khakhinov V.V. Irkutskin coherent scatter radar: history and perspectives. In: Proc. of the “International living with astarworkshop”. Irkutsk, June 24–28, 2013, p. 25–26.
  3. Ratovsky K.G., Klimenko M., Klimenko V., Medvedev A.V., Alsatkin S.S., Oinats A.V. Comparison of height-diurnal electron density variations between Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar and GSM TIP and IRI Models. In: Proc. of V Int. Conf “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety – 2016”. Kaliningrad, 19–25 June, 2016, Kaliningrad, 2016, pp. 482–486.
  4. Adushkin V.V., Kozlov S.I., Sil’nikov M.V. (eds.) Vozdeystvie raketno-kosmicheskoy tekhniki na okruzhayushchuyu sredu [The impact of rocket and space technology on the environment]. Moscow, GEOS Pub,, 2016, 795 p. (In Russian)
  5. Veniaminov S.S., Yakubovskiy S.V. Obshchaya postanovka zadachi optimizatsii gruppirovki sredstv slozhnoy sistemy vooruzheniya [General formulation of the task of optimizing the grouping of means of a complex armament system]. In: NITs RKO [Research Center Rocket Space Defense], pt. 2, 2013, pp. 137–147. (In Russian)

 

Subjects: physics

Aleshin V.P.1
Scientific visualization in near-Earth astronomy
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 20-27.

Scientific visualization in near-Earth astronomy will solve the following problems: visual presentation of research results; visualization and analysis of large volumes of measurements; interpretation of optical images and photometric signals using the induced virtual environment method; visualization of situations with space debris; visual analysis of the asteroid hazard; visualization of astrophysical problems in near-Earth astronomy; visual education for near-Earth astronomy.As follows from Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, the non-computable Turing functions, the R. Penrose theorem No-go, the finite automaton (computer) cannot replace the human cognitive abilities in the analysis of non formal information. The most effective way to analyze data is through interactive visualization using 3D tools. The paper on examples of real astronomical measurements and catalogs shows the possibilities of scientific visualization in near-Earth astronomy. The following program systems of visualization are considered: system of induced virtual environment; program for 3D visualization of satellites on the background of cartographic projections of the Earth; analysis program of large data using visualization; system for estimation of the orientation of emergency satellites using the virtual environment method; virtual planetarium program; interactive virtual education system for near-Earth astronomy.

Keywords: scientific visualization, induced virtual environment, space debris, asteroid danger.

» Affiliations
1 Research-and-Production Corporation “Precision System and Instruments” (PRC “PSI”)
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: aleshin_vl@mail.ru
» References
  1. Penrose R. The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989, 386 p.
  2. Penrose R. Shadows of the Mind: An Approach to the Missing Science of Consciousness. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1994, 690 p.
  3. Aleshin V.P., Afanas’ev V.O., Bajgozin D.A., Baturin YU.M., Klimenko S.V. Sistema vizualizacii inducirovannogo virtual’nogo okruzheniya: sostoyanie proekta [Virtual environment visualization system for the tasks of space exploration: Current status]. In: Sbornik trudov 14-j Mezhd. Konf. “Grafikon-2004” [Proc. of 14th conference `Graphicon-2004”]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2004, pp. 12–15. (In Russian)
  4. Aleshin V.P. Tekhnologiya virtual’noj 3D sredy v obratnyh zadachah analiza vizual’nogo vospriyatiya i interpretacii izobrazhenij [Technology of 3D virtual environment in inverse problems of visual perception analysis and image interpretation]. Trudy 26-j Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii “Grafikon 2016” [Proc. of 26th conference `Graphicon-2016”]. Moscow, Protvino, ICPT Publ., 2016, pp. 9–13. (In Russian)
  5. Wald A. Statistical Decision Functions. Wiley, 1950. 192 p.
  6. Aleshin V.P. Nazemnye sistemy polucheniya opticheskih izobrazhenij kosmicheskih apparatov i obratnye zadachi [Ground systems of satellite imaging and inverse problems]. Elektromagnitnye volny i ehlektronnye sistemy [Electromagnetic waves and electronic systems], 2014, no. 8, pp. 60–67. (In Russian)
  7. Aleshin V. Modelirovaanie I vosstanovlenie opticheskih izobrageniy v okolozemnoy astronomii [Modeling and restoration of optical images in near-Earth astronomy]. \textit{Ekologicheskiy vestnik nauchnykh tsentrov Chernomorskogo ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva} [Ecological bulletin of scientific centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation], 2014, no. 4, iss. 3, pp. 7–12. (In Russian)
  8. Aleshin V.P., Novgorodtsev D.D., Vigon V.G., Grishin E.A., Dornostup S.A., Simonov G.V., Shargorodsky V.D., Yurasov V.S. Ocenka dvizheniya avarijnyh kosmicheskih apparatov otnositel’no centra mass po real’nym opticheskim nablyudeniyam [Estimation of nonoperating spacecrafts motion near center of mass using the real optical observations]. Ekologicheskiy vestnik nauchnykh tsentrov Chernomorskogo ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva [Ecological bulletin of scientific centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation], 2013, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 7–14. (In Russian)
  9. Aleshin V., Afanasiev V., Bobkov A., Klimenko S., Kuliev V., Novgorodtsev D. Visual 3D Perception of motion environment and visibility factors in virtual space. In: Transaction on Computer Science, XVI, Lecture Notes on Computer Science 7380. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 2012. pp. 17–33.
  10. Afanas’ev V. O., Bajgozin D.A., Baturin Y.M., Danilicheva P.P, Dolgovesov B.S., Eryomchenko E.N., Kazanskij I.P., Klimenko A.S., Klimenko S.V., Nikitin I.N., Nikitina L.D., Petruhin V.A., A Serebrov A.A., Urazmetov V.F., Frolov P.V. Sistemy vizualizacii i virtual’nogo okruzheniya v zadachah issledovaniya kosmosa: nastoyashchee i budushchee [Systems of visualization and virtual environment in space investigation problems: present and future]. In: Kosmonavtika XXI veka [Cosmonautics of the XXI century]. Moscow, RTSoft Publ., 2010, pp. 185–249. (In Russian)

 

Subjects: physics

Babkin Yu.V.1, Yakubovsky S.V.2
Monitoring of space objects in medium Earth orbit with early-warning radar
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 28-33.

The early-warning radar opportunity in an artificial satellite in medium Earth orbit surveillance is observed. The nowadays Russian early-warning radars provide long distance monitoring in purpose to track space apparatuses. In comparison with telescope observations, radar observations are not limited by weather conditions and the daylight resence, so advantages are obvious. More over it, radars allow to get not only angular coordinate measurings, but also distance and radial velocity measurings. However, the radar operating distance is usually limited by several thousands kilometers, so it is possible to track only satellites in low Earth orbit. But by means of some additional measures it could be achieved to track satellite in medium Earth orbit. The amount of those measures, defined as special operating mode, is represented. The main difficulty, that is discussed, is in large distance between satellite and radar. The value of the semiaxis of the objects under consideration can be up to 40,000 kilometers. The radiated electromagnetic field energy decreases as the square of distance that radiowave overcomes. So when the transmitted radar signal is reflected from sattelite, the received echo signal level is deep under receiver noise. The most common way to increase signal-to-noise ratio is in transmitted signal duration increasing.

Keywords: medium Earth orbit (MEO), satellite, space object, observation, measurement, detection, radiolocation, radar, space debris, space surveillance.

» Affiliations
1 Joint Stock Company “Academician A.L. Mints Radiotechnical Institute”, Moscow, 127083, Russia
2 SRC “Kosmos”, MoD, Moscow, 129345, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: yubabkin@gmail.com
» References

 

Subjects: physics

Batmunkh N.1,2
Estimate of short-periodic perturbations in a problem of celestial mechanics
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 34-38.

Let us consider the following problem of celestial mechanics. A zero-mass point moves under a gravitational acceleration $\mathbf P_0$ to a centralbody of finite mass, and a disturbing acceleration $\mathbf P$. The last vector isconstant in an accompanying reference frame with axes directed along the radius, thetransversal, and the angular momentum vector. Earlier this problem has been transformedusing averaging method. In more exact terms a change of variables excluding short-periodicharmonics has been found (in the first approximation with respect to the ratio $|\mathbf P|/|\mathbf P_0|$). So the differences between osculating and mean elements wereobtained explicitly, as well as the equations of motion in mean elements.A problem of evaluating the magnitude of short-periodic harmonics arises.It is not difficult to evaluate them for each element. But we need to do it in thecoordinate space, not in the space of elements. Meanwhile the standard estimate of a coordinatesincrement via an elements increment is drastically rough. In the present paper wesucceed to obtain an exact estimate using Euclidean (mean-squared) norm of a variance.For this a relatively simple expression for the squared variance of the radius-vectorvia variances of elements was firstly derived. It was applied toestimate the norm $|d\mathbf{r}|$ (difference of position vectors on the osculatingand mean orbit) in the above problem. It turns out that $|d\mathbf r|^2$ is a weightedsum of squared components of $\mathbf P$, and the corresponding coefficients depend onsemi-major axis and eccentricity of the mean orbit only. The results are applied tothe two real problems on the motion of sputniks, and of asteroids.

Keywords: Euclidean (mean-squared) norm of a variance, osculating orbit,disturbing acceleration, short-periodic perturbations.

» Affiliations
1 Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russia
2 Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, 13343, Mongolia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: monastro@yandex.ru
» References

 

Subjects: physics

Veniaminov S.S.1
Propagation of solar activity using the block approximation method, generalized weighed root-mean-square methods and revealing latent periodicities methods
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 39-44.

The low Earth orbit propagation accuracy critically depends on the knowledge of atmosphere density variations determining the atmosphere drag to the low Earth satellites. In its turn, the atmosphere drag depends on the intensity of solar radiation and is the most important factor of determining the orbiting lifetime of a satellite in the low Earth orbit or the geostationary transfer orbit (having a very low perigee). However, the prediction of the atmosphere density variations is a weak point of the low satellite motion parameters propagation. The processes of such a kind are characterized by instability of the registered signal level, by presence of appreciable stochastic component, and often by absence of a priori knowledge on their analytic structure. Application of classic methods in such cases usually does not give satisfactory results. In this paper, a family of methods for enhancing the propagation of a wide class of processes having non-stable parameters is proposed. The methods are of a phenomenological type (not requiring any a priori information) including the block approximation method, D-methods of revealing latent periodicities, the generalized weighed root-mean-square method. These methods allow revealing the real structure of processes investigated by their measurements only. Moreover, they give a possibility for concretizing obscure and approximate assumption on the process’s structure, as well as enhancing the quality of prediction of processes having roughly determined or “floating” values of their parameters and to guess the trend of their variations. As an example of application of the proposed methods the solar flux projection is made with their help.

Keywords: atmosphere drag, atmosphere density variations, solar activity, index of solar radiation, orbit propagation accuracy, D-method, block approximation method, generalized weighed root-mean-square method.

» Affiliations
1 Scientific Research Center `Kosmos’, Ministry of Defence, Moscow, 129345, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: sveniami@gmail.com
» References
  1. Vavrin A.B. Solar cycle sensitivity study of breakup events in LEO. Orbital Debris Quarterly News, 2015, vol. 19, iss. 1, pp. 6–7.
  2. Veniaminov S.S. Revealing latent structural patterns in processes and signals. URSS Pub., Moscow, 2014, 216 p. (In Russian)
  3. Veniaminov S.S. Revealing latent structural patterns in processes and signals. URSS, Spain, 2014.
  4. Veniaminov S.S. The new family of methods for revealing latent periodicities in signals. Proc. of 2$^\text{nd}$ European Conference on Space Debris, ECA, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997.
  5. Veniaminov S.S., Dicky V.I., Tretyakov Yu.N. The New Approach to Revealing Latent Periodicities in Radar and Optical Sygnals. Proc. of 4$^{th}$ US/Russian Workshop on Space Surveillance, Washington D.C. 2000.
  6. Veniaminov S.S., Dicky V.I., Tretyakov Yu.N., Seidelmann P.K. Revealing latent periodicities in noisy signals. Proc. of 4th US/Russian Workshop on Space Surveillance, Washington D.C. 2000.
  7. Solar Flux Values, 2800 Mc. National Research Council, Ottawa, 1967.

 

Subjects: physics

Vinogradova T.A.1
Role of the Lidov–Kozai mechanism in transformation of high-inclined asteroids into near-Earth objects
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 45-49.

The Lidov–Kozai mechanism induces coupled long-period oscillations in the inclination and eccentricity of asteroid orbits depending on the argument of the perihelion $\omega$. When the inclination decreases, the eccentricity increases and reaches a maximum at the points $\omega = 90^\circ$, 270$^\circ$. Both circulation and libration of the argument of the perihelion can take place. The amplitude of the eccentricity oscillations in the case of large inclination can be very large. In this work, the possibility of transformation of main belt asteroids into near-Earth objects under the influence of this perturbation was investigated. Numerical integration of 139 selected asteroid orbits was performed with Jupiter in circular orbit as a perturbing body. As a result, it was found that some high-inclined asteroids which move far from the Earth orbit can be transformed into near-Earth objects at large time scales.

Keywords: celestial mechanics, asteroids, impacts, secular perturbations, Lidov-Kozai mechanism.

» Affiliations
1 Institute of Applied Astronomy, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, 191187, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: vta@iaaras.ru
» References
  1. Vinogradova T.A., Zabotin A.S. IAARAS NEO katalogue. In: Tezisy dokladov Mezhdunarodnoi konferencii “Okolozemnaja astronomia 2007” [Proc. of reports international conf. “Near-Earth astronomy 2007”], 2007, p. 23. (In Russian)
  2. Brouwer D., van Woerkom A.J.J. The secular variations of the orbital elements of the principal planets. In: Astron. Papers Amer. Ephem., 1950, p. 99
  3. Lidov M.L. The evolution of orbits of artificial satellites of planets under the action of gravitational perturbations of external bodies. Planetary and Space Science, 1962. vol. 9, iss. 10, pp. 719–759.
  4. Kozai Y. Secular perturbations of asteroids with high inclination and eccentricity. The Astronomical Journal, 1962, vol. 67, p. 591.
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  6. Vinogradova T.A. Amplitude of the Lidov–Kozai $i$ and $e$ oscillations in asteroid families. MNRAS, 2017, vol. 468, no. 4, pp. 4719–4724.

 

Subjects: physics

Guo Peng1, Ivashkin V.V.1,2, Stikhno C.A.2
An analysis of the trajectories set structure for the asteroid Apophis probable impact with the Earth in 2036
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 50-55.

A very close approach to the Earth on April 13, 2029 has been predicted for the hazardous asteroid 99942 Apophis. According to measurements of 2005, there was also a large enough theoretical possibility of an impact with the Earth in 2036. The main purpose of this study is to identify the entire set of these impact trajectories of Apophis, and to investigate their characteristics, in particular, the possible impact zone (impact Path of Risk) of the asteroid Apophis on the surface of the Earth in 2036. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, we describe the method for determining the collision orbits of the asteroid Apophis. Based on the developed algorithm, several subsets of collision orbits have been constructed, for each of which the perigee distance of the trajectory is close to some fixed value, which varies from the lowest possible value for the impact, $\sim 2069$ km, to the radius of the Earth, $\sim 6375$ km. In the second part, we determine the impact points on the surface of the Earth and obtain the possible impact path of risk for the asteroid Apophis in 2036. The energy, time and geometry characteristics of the Apophis’ collision trajectories and its impact area have been studied. The influence of precession and nutation on the determination of the coordinates of the impact points has been analyzed.

Keywords: asteroid Apophis, orbit of Apophis, nominal initial data, errors of the initial data, collision with the Earth, collision trajectories, impact Path of Risk, geographical coordinates.

» Affiliations
1 Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125047, Russia
2 Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, 105005, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: Ivashkin@keldysh.ru
» References
  1. Yagudina E.I., Shor V.A. Orbita ASZ (99942) Apophis $=$ 2004 MN4 iz analiza opticheskikh i radarnykh nablyudeniy [Orbit NEA (99942) Apophis $=$ 2004 MN4 from the analysis of optical and radar observations]. Vserossiyskaya konferentsiya “Asteroidno-kometnaya opasnost’-2005 (AKO-2005)” [All-Russian Conference “Asteroid-Comet Hazard 2005 (ACH-2005)”], St. Petersburg, October 3–7, 2005. St. Petersburg: IPA RAS, 2005, pp. 355–358. (In Russian)
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  4. Ivashkin V.V., Stikhno C.A. An Analysis of the Correction Problem for the Near-Earth Asteroid (99942) Apophis$=$2004 MN4. 2007 Planetary Defense Conference, G. Washington University, Washington, D.C. USA. March 5–8, 2007.
  5. Sokolov L.L., Kuteeva G.A. Vozmozhnyye soudareniya asteroida Apofis posle utochneniya yego orbity [Prediction of possible collisions of asteroid Apophis after refinement of its orbit]. Vestn. SPbSU, 2015, ser. 1, vol. 2 (60), no. 1, pp. 148–156. (In Russian)
  6. Ivashkin V.V., Stikhno C.A., Guo P. O strukture mnozhestva veroyatnykh trayektoriy soudareniya asteroida Apofis s Zemley v 2036 g. [On the structure of the set of probable Earth-impact trajectories for the asteroid Apophis in 2036]. Doklady Akademii Nauk [Doklady Physics], 2017, vol. 475, no. 4, pp. 389–394. DOI: 10.7868/S0869565217220078. (In Russian)
  7. Kaplan G.H. The IAU Resolutions on Astronomical Reference Systems, Time Scales, and Earth Rotation Models. Explanation and Implementation. U.S. Naval Observatory. Circular no. 179. Washington, D.C. 20392. 2005, 118 p.
  8. Aksenov E.P., Chazov V.V. Model’ dvizheniya ISZ. Glavnaya problema. Osnovnyye algoritmy [Motion model of artificial satellites. The main problem. Basic algorithms]. Vorob’yevy gory-Trekhgorka–Zvenigorod. 2011, 188 p. (In Russian)
  9. Krylov V.I. Koordinatno-vremennyye preobrazovaniya v geodezii [Coordinate and temporal transformations in geodesy]. Moscow, MIIGAiK, 2014, 90 p. (In Russian)
  10. Stepanyants V.A. Vremya i sistemy koordinat [Time and coordinate systems]. Mashinostroyeniye. Entsiklopediya. Tom IV-22. Raketno-kosmicheskaya tekhnika [Mechanical engineering. Encyclopedia. Vol. IV-22. Rocket and space technology]. In 2 books. Book 1. Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye Publ., 2012, pp. 15–26. (In Russian)
  11. Google My Maps. Apophis Path of Risk in 2036 with precession and nutation. URL: https://drive.google.com/open?id= 1VXX1dxJO2e6hn51FFTVf_wbk9gs{\&}usp= sharing (access date 25 November, 2017)
  12. GALSPACE. Malye tela Solnechnoy sistemy. Stolknovenie Zemli s asteroidom — problema Apofisa [Small bodies of the solar system. The collision of the Earth with the asteroid. Problem of Apophis]. URL: http://galspace.spb.ru/index129.html (access date 25 November, 2017) (In Russian)
  13. Wikipedia. B612Foundation. URL: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B612_Foundation (access date 25 November, 2017)

 

Subjects: physics

Egorova L.A.1, Lokhin V.V.1
Explosion-like distruction of meteoroid
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 56-59.

Observations of the flight of meteoric bodies from ground and orbital stations fix the intensity of their luminescence along the trajectory. The results of observation are usually represented in the form of a graph — the luminosity curve. For large meteoroids (diameter more than 10 cm) a sharp increase in its emission at the end of the flight is often recorded, the so-called “final flash”. With large body sizes some authors also introduce the concept of “meteor explosion” because of the effects that motion and destruction of the body in the atmosphere produces on the surface of the Earth (shock and heat wave).In this paper, authors propose a model for the destruction of a fireball and a model for the transition of its kinetic energy to thermal energy. Authors consider the destruction of the bolide into many fragments as if a solid body destruction in an explosion. After crushing the kinetic energy of the moving particles of the meteoric body passes into the thermal energy of the gas volume in which their motion occurs. Assuming the known distribution of the meteoroid fragments by mass after crushing, a temperature is obtained in a cloud of gas and particles forspecific conditions of the Chelyabinsk event. The high temperature of the gas in such acloud allows us to talk about the phenomenon of “thermal explosion”.

Keywords: fireball fragmentation, explosion of meteoroid, energy release, physical theory of meteors.

» Affiliations
1 Institute of mechanics of Moscow State University, Moscow, 119192, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: egorova@imec.msu.ru
» References
  1. Popova O., Nemchinov I. Bolides in the Earth atmosphere. In: Catastrophic Events Caused by Cosmic Objects. Springer, Netherlands, 2008, pp. 131–162.
  2. Ceplecha Z., Revelle D.O. Fragmentation model of meteoroid motion, mass loss, and radiation in the atmosphere. Meteoritics {\&} Planetary Science, 2005, vol. 40, no.  1, pp. 35–54.
  3. Egorova L., Lokhin V. On the mechanism of crushing meteoroid with end flash effect. EPSC. Moon and Planets, vol. 95, pp. 303–319.
  4. Egorova L.A., Lokhin V.V. Two-stage destruction of a meteoroid with a final burst. Moscow University Mechanics Bulletin, 2016, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 82–86.
  5. Shuvalov V.V., Svettsov V.V., Trubetskaya I. A. An estimate for the size of the area of damage on the Earth’s surface after impacts of 10–300-m asteroids. Solar System Research, 2013, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 260–267.
  6. Register P.J., Mathias D.L., Wheeler L.F. Asteroid fragmentation approaches for modeling atmospheric energy deposition. Icarus, 2017, vol. 284, pp. 157–166.
  7. Nemchinov I. V., Popova O. P., Teterev A. V. Penetration of large meteoroids into the atmosphere: Theory and observations. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 1999, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 1194–1223.
  8. Popova O. P. et al. Chelyabinsk airburst, damage assessment, meteorite recovery, and characterization. Science, 2013, vol. 342, no. 6162, pp. 1069–1073.

 

Subjects: physics

Korobtsev I.V.1, Mishina M.N.1
Investigation of photometrical parameters features of space objects over a wide range of phase angles
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 60-66.

Observations of space objects over a wide range of phase angles allow to find out the brightness of space object changes under various conditions of the illumination and to investigate surfaces of space object inaccessible to the observer on small phase angels. Results of photometrical observations of spacecrafts and space debris in the range of phase angles from 0 to 140 degrees are presented. Observations were obtained with the 1.6-meter telescope AZT-33IK of Sayan observatory of ISTP SB RAS during 2015-2017. An analysis of magnitude dependence on phase angle reveals an increase in the brightness at phase angles above approximately 90 degrees which is characteristic of the operating spacecrafts in various types of orbit. A model of the brightness variation of spacecrafts at large phase angles was considered. We also give some examples of the brightness variations features of the non-operating spacecrafts under various illumination conditions and the brightness dependence on phase angle of space debris. The analysis of light curves of the rotating objects revealed the dependence of brightness changes of the space objects from conditions of illumination. These changes are identified in a form and amplitude of light curves.

Keywords: space debris, phase dependence, GLONASS.

» Affiliations
1 Institute of solar-terrestrial physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: korobtsev@yandex.ru
» References
  1. Devyatkin A.V., Gorshanov D.L., Kupriyanov V.V., Vereshagina I.A. Programmnye pakety “Apeks-I” i “Apeks-II” dlya obrabotki astronomicheskih PZS-nablyudenii [“Apex-I” and “Apex-II” software packages for processing of astronomical CCD observations]. Astronomicheskii vestnik [Solar System Research], 2010, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 74–87. (In Russian)
  2. Cognion R.L. Large Phase Angle Observations of GEO Satellites. Proc. of SPIE Sensors and Systems for Space Applications VI, 2013, vol. 8739, 87390K, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1117/12.2014623.
  3. Cognion R.L. Observations and Modeling of GEO Satellites at Large Phase Angles. Proc. of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui HI, USA, 2013. Available at: https://amostech.com/TechnicalPapers/2013/ POSTER/COGNION.pdf (accessed 20.10.2017).
  4. Hejduk M.D. Specular and Diffuse Components in Spherical Satellite Photometric Modeling. Proc. of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui HI, USA, 2011. Available at: https://www.amostech.com/TechnicalPapers/ 2011/NROC/HEJDUK.pdf (accessed 20.10.2017).
  5. Scott R., Wallace B. Satellite Characterization using Small Aperture Instruments at DRDC Ottawa. Proc. of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui HI, USA, 2008, pp. 337–347.

 

Subjects: physics

Kokhirova G.I.1, Babadzhanov P.B.1, Khamroev U.Kh.1, Kholshevnikov K.V.2, Milanov D.V.2
Identifying celestial bodies of common origin using metric approach
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 67-78.

Finding a common origin for various celestial bodies, especially the relations between meteoroid streams, comets and asteroids (possibly extinct comets) remains one of the important problems in the Solar System astronomy. Different criteria, starting with one by Southworth and Hawkins, have been used for this purpose. Unfortunately, they do not satisfy axioms of metric space, in particular the triangle axiom. Besides, they are inapplicable if at least one of the orbits is circular. Recently we proposed metrics free of all these drawbacks. In the present paper the traditional criteria are applied, as well as new metrics, to the problem of searching for minor bodies of the Solar System with a common origin. The focus is on the asteroid-meteoroid complex $\sigma$-Capricornids (Adonis family). Our investigations confirm genetic relations of objects of the complex, and allow us to determine a moment of the maximal similarity of their orbits. Most probably at this moment a break-up of the nucleus of a comet-progenitor of the complex occurs. Besides, we examine several NEA supposingly connected with the $\sigma$-Capricornids complex. It was established that besides the meteoroid stream itself at least 5 NEO of a comet nature: (2101) Adonis, 1995CS, 2008BO16, 2011EC41, 2013CN36 enter the complex.

Keywords: metric space, space of Keplerian orbits, asteroid, comet, evolution,common origin.

» Affiliations
2 Saint Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: kokhirova2004@mail.ru
» References
  1. Kholshevnikov K.V., Kokhirova G..I., Babadzhanov P,B., Khamroev U.H. Metrics in the space of orbits and their application to searching for celestial objects of common origin. MNRAS, 2016, vol. 462, iss. 2, pp. 2275-–2283. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw1712
  2. Milanov D.V. Metrics in Keplerian orbits quotient spaces. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astr., 2018, vol. 130, iss. 4, pp. 391–403.
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  5. Babadzhanov P.B., Williams I.P., Kokhirova G.I.Near-Earth objects in the Taurid complex. MNRAS, 2008, vol. 386, iss. 3, pp. 1436–1442. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13096.x
  6. Madiedo J.M., Trigo-Rodriguez J.M., Williams I.P., Ortiz J.L., Cabrera J.The Northern $\chi$-Orionid meteoroid stream and possible association with the potentiallyhazardous asteroid 2008XM1. MNRAS, 2013, vol. 431, pp. 2464–2470. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stt342
  7. Porub\v{c}an V., Williams I.P., Korno\v{s} L.Associations between asteroids and meteoroid streams. Earth, Moon and Planets, 2004, vol. 95, iss. 1–4, pp. 697–712.
  8. Porub\v{c}an V., Korno\v{s} L., Williams I.P. The Taurid complex meteor showers and asteroids. Contrib. of the Astron. Observ. Scalnate Pleso, 2006, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 103–117.
  9. Rudawska R., Vaubaillon J., Jenniskens P.Asteroid 2010 TU149 in the Taurid complex. In: Abstracts of European Planetary Science Congress 2012, held 23–28 September, 2012 in Madrid, Spain, 2012a, EPSC2012, 886R.
  10. Rudawska R., Vaubaillon J., Jenniskens P.Asteroid 2005 UW6—A ‘New’ Object in the Taurid Complex? In: Abstracts of conf. `Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2012’, held on May 16–20, 2012 in Niigata, Japan, 2012b, LPI Contribution No. 1667, 6222R.
  11. Babadzhanov P.B., Williams I.P., Kokhirova G.I.The meteor showers associated with 2003EH1. MNRAS, 2008, vol. 386, iss. 4, pp. 2271–2277. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13202.x
  12. Jenniskens P.2003 EH1 Is the Quadrantid Shower Parent Comet. The Astron. J., 2004, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 3018–3022. doi: 10.1086/ 383213
  13. Neslu\v{s}an L., jr. Hajdukov'{a} M., Jakub'{\i}k M.Meteor-shower complex of asteroid 2003 EH1 compared with that of comet 96P/Machholz. Astron. and Astrophys., 2013, vol. 560, iss. 10, p. A47. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322228
  14. Neslu\v{s}an L., Ka\v{n}uchov'{a} Z., Tomko D.The meteor-shower complex of comet 96P/Machholz revisited. Astron. and Astrophys., 2013, vol. 551, no. 14, p. A87. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220299
  15. Williams I.P., Ryabova G.O., Baturin A.P., Chernitsov A.M.The parent of the Quadrantid meteoroid stream and asteroid 2003 EH1. MNRAS, 2004, vol. 355, iss. 4, pp. 1171–1181. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08401.x
  16. Babadzhanov P.B., Kokhirova G.I., Williams I.P., Obrubov Yu.V.Investigation into the relationship of comet 96P/Machholz 1 and asteroid 2003 EH1. Astron. andAstrophys., 2017, vol. 598, p. A94. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629006
  17. Babadzhanov P.B., Williams I.P.Is the near-Earth asteroid 2000PG3 an extinct comet? In: Milani A., Valsecchi G.B., Vokrouhlicky D. (eds.) Near-Earth Objects our Celestial Neighbours: Opportunity and Risk. Proc. IAU Symposium 236, 2007, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 135–140.
  18. Babadzhanov P.B., Williams I.P., Kokhirova G.I.Near-Earth asteroids among the Piscids meteoroid stream. Astron. and Astrophys., 2008, vol. 479, pp. 249–255. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20078185
  19. Babadzhanov P.B., Williams I.P., Kokhirova G.I.Near-Earth asteroids among the Iota-Aquariids meteoroid stream. Astron. and Astrophys.,2009, vol. 507, pp. 1067–1072. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912936
  20. Babadzhanov P.B., Williams I.P., Kokhirova G.I.Near-Earth asteroids among the Scorpiids meteoroid complex. Astron. and Astrophys., 2013, vol. 556, p. 25B. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219828
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Subjects: physics

Kuznetsov V.B.1
The determination of preliminary orbit from two series of observations by the continuation method with optimal parametrization
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 79-85.

The method of determination of preliminary orbit by the angle topocentric coordinates and their velocities of observed body in two instants of time is considered. The main equation of the method is based on the integral of areas and integral of the energy of the two-body problem. For its solving the continuation method with optimal parametrization is proposed. This method does not require the polynomial form of solved equation. The problem is reduced to solving the Cauchy problem for two ordinary differential equations (ODE) with initial conditions what does not depends on data of original equation. The arc calculated along the solution curve is the optimal continuation parameter for this solution. The such parametrization is the best for the continuation method. In this way, all possible solutions are obtained. As example, the determination of the orbit of asteroid (1685) Toro is presented.

Keywords: preliminary orbit, the two-body integrals, the continuation method with optimal parametrization.

» Affiliations
1 Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS, St. Petersburg, 191187, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: vb.kuznetsov@iaaras.ru
» References
  1. Taff L.G., Hall D.L. The use of angles and angular rates. I — Initial orbit determination. Celest. Mech., 1977, vol. 16, pp. 481–488. DOI: 10.1007/BF01229289
  2. Gronchi G.F., Dimare L., Milani A. Orbit determination with two{}body integrals. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astr., 2010, vol. 107, pp. 299–318. DOI: 10.1007/s10569-010-9271-9
  3. Gronchi G.F., Farnocchia D., Dimare L. Orbit determination with two-body integrals II. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astr., 2011, vol. 110, pp. 257–270. DOI: 10.1007/s10569-011-9357-z
  4. Gronchi G.F., Bau G., Maro S. Orbit determination with two-body integrals III. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astr., 2015, vol. 123, pp. 105–122. DOI: 10.1007/s10569-015-9623-6
  5. Vinogradova T.A. Vychislenie ellipticheskoy orbity po dvum nabludeniyam, esli opredeleny scorosti izmeneniya sphericheskih koordinat [The determination of elliptical orbit from two observations with velocities of spherical coordinates] In: Tezisy dokladov konferencii “Astrometriya, geodinamika I nebesnaya mehanika na poroge XXI veka” [Proc. of conf. “Astrometry, geodynamics and celestial mechanics at the beginning of XXI century”], St.-Petersburg, 2000, pp. 263. (In Russian)
  6. Vinogradova T.A. The method of elliptic orbit determination from two short CCD series of observations. Bull. of Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS, 2016, vol. 39, pp. 8–16. (In Russian)
  7. Davidenko D.F. On a new method of numerical solution of systems of nonlinear equations. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, 1953. vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 601–602.
  8. Shalashilin V.I., Kuznetsov E.B. Parametric continuation and optimal parametrization in applied mathematics and mechanics. Kluwer, 2003. 228 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-2537-8
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  12. Kuznetsov V.B. Determination of orbit from two position vectors by the continuation method with optimal optimization. Izvestya glavnoy astronomicheskoy observatorii v Pulcove [News of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Pulkovo], 2016, no. 223, pp. 207–212.

 

Subjects: physics

Kuznetsov E.D.1, Safronova V.S.1
Using of metrics in the space of orbits to searching for asteroids on close orbits
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 86-92.

Dynamical evolution of asteroids on close orbits is considered.Metrics in spaces of Keplerian orbits are employed to consider two problems.The first problem is searching for asteroids on close orbits.The second one is application of the metric for asteroid families identification.All 735085 orbits contained in MPC data base on 8.07.2017 were used to searchfor asteroids on close orbits. Two metrics in spaces of Keplerian orbits are employed.The first metric defines distance between two orbits in five-dimensional spaceof Keplerian orbits.The second metric defines distance in three-dimensional factor-space ofpositional elements.To cut down number of possible pairs we imposed additional restriction.If both differences between perihelion distances of asteroid orbits and betweenaphelion distances ones were more than 1 a.u. then the metrics were not estimated.Modelling dynamical evolution was made in JPL’s HORIZONS system.Interval of simulation was 100 and 900 years.Investigation a possibility of using the metric in three-dimensionalfactor-space for asteroid families identification was carried out.Proper elements were taken from Asteroids Dynamics Site.Maximal value of the metric for members of the family depends on the asteroidfamilies.The metrics are minimal for the families (606) Brangane, (396) Aeolia,(53546) 2000 BY6 and the metrics are maximal for the families (28804) 2000 HC81,(8905) Bankakuko, (5) Astraea.

Keywords: asteroids, space of Keplerian orbits, metric, numerical integration of orbits, asteroid’s families, osculating elements, proper elements.

» Affiliations
1 Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620000, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: eduard.kuznetsov@urfu.ru
» References
  1. Kholshevnikov K.V.O metrikakh v prostranstvakh keplerovskikh orbit [On metrics in the space of Keplerian orbits]. In: Fizika kosmosa: Trudy 45 Mezhdunarodnoj studencheskoj nauchnoj konferentsii, Ekaterinburg, 1–5 fevralya 2016 g. [Physics of space: Proceedings of 45$^{\rm th}$ International student scientific conference, Ekaterinburg, 1–5 February 2016], Ekaterinburg, Ural University Press, 2016, pp. 168–184. (In Russian)
  2. Kholshevnikov K.V., Kokhirova G.I., Babadzhanov P.B., Khamroev U.H.Metrics in the space of orbits and their application to searching for celestialobjects of common origin. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2016, vol. 25, pp. 2275–2283.doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw1712
  3. Kokhirova G.I., Babadzhanov P.B., Khamroev U.H., Kholshevnikov K.V., Milanov D.V.Poisk nebesnykh tel obshchego proiskhozhdeniya: metricheskij podkhod [Search of celestial bodies of common origin: metrical approach]. \emph{Ekologicheskij vestnik nauchnykh tsentrov Chernomorskogo ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva} [Ecological bulletin of research centers of the Black Sea economic cooperation], 2017, Preprint. (In Russian)
  4. Vokrouhlicky D., Bottke W.F., Chesley S.R., Scheeres D.J., Statler T.S. The Yarkovsky and YORP effects. Michel P., DeMeo F.E., Bottke W.F. (eds.) Asteroids IV. Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 2015, pp. 509–531. doi: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch027
  5. Minor Planet Center. URL: http:// www.minorplanetcenter.net
  6. HORIZONS Web-Interface. URL: https:// ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi\#top
  7. Shustov B.M., Rykhlova L.V. (eds.) Asteroidno-kometnaya opasnost’: vchera, segodnya, zavtra [Asteroid-Comet Impact Hazard: Past, Today, and Tomorrow]. Moscow, Fizmatlit, 2010. 383 p. (In Russian).
  8. Masiero J.R., DeMeo F.E., Kasuga T., Parker A.H. Asteroid family physical properties. Michel P., DeMeo F.E., Bottke W.F. (eds.) Asteroids IV. Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 2015, pp. 509–531. doi: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch017
  9. Milani A., Knezevic Z. Asteroid mean elements: higher order and iterative theories.Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astr., 1998, vol. 71, pp. 55–78.doi: 10.1023/A:1008315029975
  10. Asteroids Dynamic Site.URL: http:// hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys

 

Subjects: physics

Lang Anqi1, Ivashkin V.V.1,2
An analysis of space trajectories characteristics for the Earth–Apophis–Earth mission
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 93-101.

The spacecraft trajectories for the Earth–Apophis–Earth space expedition with the flight to asteroid Apophis, staying there for some time and the following return to the Earth are studied in the paper. Optimal trajectories (with maximum useful mass) and their characteristics for the flights during 2019–2022 years using the existing high thrust engines, with the total flight duration up to two years, are determined and investigated. It is shown that there is principal possibility of implementing the Earth–Apophis –Earth space expedition based on the launch vehicles “Soyuz-FG”, “Soyuz-2”, “Zenit” and the upper stage “Fregat”.The SC motion around the asteroid is investigated for the main SC and for a mini-satellite with radio-device taking into account three perturbations: the gravitational effects of far celestial bodies (Sun, Earth, Moon, Venus, and Jupiter), non-spherical structure of Apophis and solar radiation pressure. It was shown that it is possible to choose such orbits of the main SC and the mini-probe that their motions will be stable for long enough time. In particular, it is possible to have stable motion of the mini-probe during about several years (for instance, from 2020 till approach to the Earth in 2029).

Keywords: asteroid Apophis, space mission Earth–Apophis–Earth, high thrust engines, optimal space trajectories, orbital motion, Apophis artificial satellite, solar radiation pressure, the asteroid’s nonsphericity, lifetime of satellite

» Affiliations
1 Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, 105005, Russia
2 Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125047, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: ivashkin@keldysh.ru
» References
  1. Asteroidno-kometnaja opasnost’: vchera, segodnja, zavtra. [Asteroid-comet danger: yesterday, today, tomorrow]. Pod red. B. M. Shustova, Ryhlovoj. Moscow: FIZMATLIT, 2010, 384p. ISBN 978-5-9221-1241-3. (In Russian)
  2. V.G. Pol’, A.V. Simonov, K.G. Suhanov. O stabil’nost’ orbity sputnik malogo nebesnogo tela, vozmuschaemogo vneshnim telom. [On stability of satellite orbit of a small celestial body, perturbed by the external body]. Vestnik NPO im. S.A. Lavachkina. 2010, no. 2, pp. 17–23. (In Russian)
  3. Sandford S A. The Power of Sample Return Missions-Stardust and Hayabusa [J]. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 2011, 7(S280): 275-287.
  4. Ajluni T, Everett D, Linn T, et al. OSIRIS-REx, returning the asteroid sample [C] // Aerospace Conference, 2015 IEEE. IEEE, 2015: 1-15.
  5. Il’in V.A., Kuzmak G.E. Optimal’nye perelety kosmicheskih apparatov s dvigateljami bol’shoj tjagi. [Optimum flights of spacecrafts with high-thrust engines]. Moscow: Nauka. 1976, 744p. (In Russian)
  6. Sobol’ I.M., Statinkov R.B. Vybor optimal’nyh parametrov v zadachah so mnogimi kriterijami. Moscow: Nauka. 1981, 110p. (In Russian)
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  8. Lion P.M., Handelsman M. The Primer Vector on Fixed-Time Impulsive Trajectories – AIAA Journal, 1968, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 127 – 132.
  9. Lang Anqi. Analiz kosmicheskih traektorij dlja ehkcpedicii Zemlja-Apofis-Zemlja i dvizhenija kocmicheskogo apparata vokruk asteroid Apofis. [The analysis of the space trajectories for the Earth-Apophis-Earth expedition and the motion of the spacecraft around the asteroid Apophis]. Inzhenirnyj zhurnal: nauka I innovacii, 2017, vyp. 7. (In Russian)
  10. Pravec P., Scheirich P., Durech J., et al. The tumbling spin state of (99942) Apophis // Icarus. 2014, vol. 233, pp. 48–60.
  11. Ivashkin, V.V. and Lang, A. Analysis of spacecraft orbital motion around the asteroid Apophis. Doklady Physics$.$ 2016, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 288–292.
  12. Anqi Lang, V.V. Ivashkin$.$ Dynamics of Spacecraft Orbital Motion around Asteroid Apophis // Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC. 2016. Paper IAC-16-C1,6,2,x33922, 12 p.
  13. Ivashkin, V.V. and Lang, A. Analysis of the Orbital Motion of the Asteroid Apophis Satellite. Cosmic Research. 2017, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 253–262.
  14. Duboshin, G.N., Teoriya prityazheniya (Theory of Gravity), Moscow: G.I.F.-M.L., 1961.

 

Subjects: physics

Lukyanov A.P.1, Gundrova E.I.1, Ravdin S.S.1, Pruglo A.V.1, Vyhristenko A.M.2
A generalized model of luminosity of space objects for improving the efficiency of observation planning, and experiments on model’s formation in the Tiraspol observatory
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 102-109.

The range of space objects’ luminosity is wide and goes beyond the limiting magnitudes of telescopes. Present model of luminosity does not take into account failed attempts of measurements. It cases overestimation of the model parameters. In fact, as actual estimates correspond to conditional distribution law, they, in general, depend on limiting magnitude.To avoid bias of estimates, the criterion was proposed and analytical and numerical algorithms were developed. In this work the description of generalized model of luminosity of space objects and its testing are presented.The algorithm of estimation parameters of the model was programmed and successfully simulated. The results of tests, when space objects with luminosity close to limiting magnitude are observed, and a comparison of estimates obtained by the proposed algorithm with estimates based on the existing model are proposed in the work. The comparison shows that algorithm estimates parameters more accurately due to the fact that the generalized model takes into account the presence of unobserved “tails” of the distribution law. The results of testing algorithm on real data from Tiraspol Observatory and suggestions for other observatories engaged in monitoring near-Earth space objects to fulfill similar activities are also mentioned. Implementation of these recommendations helps to get a greater amount of information for parameters’ estimation of generalized model of luminosity for a greater number of space objects.It is expected that proposed model will improve the efficiency of observation planning of telescopes with different limiting magnitude at the stage of distribution tasks between them.

Keywords: optical observations of space objects, luminosity of space objects, observation planning, parameter estimation.

» Affiliations
1 Public Corp. “MAK Vympel”, Moscow, 125480, Russia
2 Taras Shevchenko Transnistria State University, Tiraspol, Transnistria
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: kikkolo@mail.ru
» References
  1. Luk’yanov A.P., Lagutkin V.N., Mal’tsev A.V., Kolessa A.E., Kim A.K., Ravdin S.S., Pruglo A.V., Molotov I.E., Vykhristenko A.M., Andrianov N.G. Regulyarnye opticheskie nablyudeniya nizkoorbital’nykh sputnikov v Tiraspole, Kislovodske i Moskve v 2012-2013 gg. Pervye rezul’taty i perspektivy [Regular optical observations of low orbiting satellites in Tiraspol, Kislovodsk and Moscow in 2012-2013. First results and prospects]. Ekologicheskiy vestnik nauchnykh tsentrov Chernomorskogo ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva [Ecological bulletin of scientific centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation], 2013, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 101–105. (In Russian)
  2. Kolessa A.E., Pruglo A.V., Ravdin S.S., Kim A.K., Luk’yanov A.P. Kompleks algoritmov avtomaticheskogo obnaruzheniya kosmicheskikh ob”ektov po opticheskim izobrazheniyam, otsenki uglovykh koordinat i parametrov orbit [A complex of algorithms for automatic detection of space objects by optical images, estimates of angular coordinates and orbit parameters]. Ekologicheskiy vestnik nauchnykh tsentrov Chernomorskogo ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva [Ecological bulletin of scientific centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation], 2013, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 85–90. (In Russian)
  3. Khutorovskiy Z.N., Shpital’nik M.Ts., Kolessa A.E., Luk’yanov A.P. Kriteriy i analiz effektivnosti opticheskikh nablyudeniy kosmicheskikh ob”ektov teleskopami PAO “MAK `Vympel’{“} [Criterion and analysis of the efficiency of optical observations of space objects by telescopes of PAO “MAK `Vympel’{“}]. In: Sbornik tr. mezhdunar. konf. “Okolozemnaya astronomiya-2015” [Proc. Intern. Conf. “Near-Earth Astronomy 2015”], 2015, pp. 250–255. (In Russian)
  4. Gill F., Myurrey U., Rayt M. Prakticheskaya optimizatsiya [Practical optimization]. Moscow, Mir Pub., 1985, 509 p. (In Russian)
  5. Linnik Yu.V. Metod naimen’shikh kvadratov i osnovy matematiko-statisticheskoy teorii obrabotki nablyudeniy [The method of least squares and the foundations of the mathematical-statistical theory of processing observations]. Moscow, Gos. izd-vo fiz.-mat. literaturi Pub., 1962, 349 p. (In Russian)
  6. Fishman G.S. Monte Carlo: Concepts, algorithms, and applications. Springer, 1996, 728 p.

 

Subjects: physics

Molotov I.E.1,2, Voropaev V.A.1, Yudin A.N.1, Ivanov D.E.2, Aistov E.A.1, Borovin G.K.1
Optical complexes for monitoring of the near-Earth space
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 110-116.

Interagency International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) represents one of largest systems specializing in observation of space objects. For development of the ISON project, KIAM ordered the 10 series of telescopes with apertures from 19.2 to 65 cm, elaborated the software for telescope control and CCD image processing, and adjusted the methods of GEO surveys. Using this experience three different optical complexes for near-Earth monitoring were elaborated – EOP-1, EOP-2 and KBT-6x20. 6 observatories (4 EOP-1 and 2 EOP-2) were produced with NPP “Project-Techniques” industry company. Usage of KIAM experience significantly reduced the time of production. Observatories were installed in Kislovodsk, Byurakan, Blagoveschensk and Nauchny. The perfect observation results that were obtained demonstrate the correctness of applied technical and software solutions – 48 % from 19 million measurements were obtained with these observatories in 2016 that allowed to discover almost 1000 space objects and improve our knowledge on HEO-objects (orbits of 2926 HEO-objects are maintained in KIAM database). Elaboration of new optical complex KBT-6x20 was started in KIAM to improve the orbits of HEO-objects and to detect LEO-objects. Six 20 cm telescopes form barrier field of view 42$\times$4.5 degree.

Keywords: telescope, observatory, survey, space debris, GEO, HEO, observation automation, image processing.

» Affiliations
2 Small innovation enterprise “KIAM Ballistics-Service”, Moscow, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: im62@mail.ru
» References
  1. Molotov I.E., Agapov V.M., Kouprianov V.V. et al. Nauchnaya set’ opticheskikh instrumentov dlya astrometricheskikh i fotometricheskikh nablyudeniy [Scientific network of optical instruments for astrometric and photometric observations]. Izvestiya Glavnoy astronomicheskoy observatorii v Pulkove [Transactions of the Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo], 2009, no. 219, iss. 1, pp. 233–248. (In Russian).
  2. Molotov I.E., Agapov V.M., Ibragimov M.A. et al. Global system for monitoring of Geostationary orbit. Materials of international conference Near-Earth Astronomy, 2008, pp. 309–314. (In Russian)
  3. Shilin V.D., Lukianov A.P., Molotov I.E. et al. Problems of warning about dangerous situations in the near-Earth space. Plans and possibilities. Role of optical observations. Ecological bulletin of scientific centers of ecological collaboration, 2013, no. 4. iss. 2, pp. 171–175. (In Russian)
  4. Molotov I., Zolotov V., Fakhrutdinov T., et al. New subsystem of the ISON optical network to improve the conjunction analysis. In: Proc. 66th International Astronautical Congress, 2015, IAC-15,A6,1,1,x29417. doi: 10.7892/boris.97496
  5. Molotov I., Agapov V., Makarov Yu., Kouprianov V., Lapshin A., Chestnov D., Zolotov V., Nevski V. EOP-1/EOP-2 mini-observatories for space debris observations: characteristics, tasks and first results of operation. In: Proc. the 65th International Astronautical Congress, 2014, IAC-14,A6,1,4,x23058.
  6. Kouprianov V., Molotov I. FORTE: ISON robotic telescope control software. In: Proc. 7th European Conference on Space Debris, 2017, p. 9.

 

Subjects: physics

Murtazov A.K.1, Efimov A.V.1
Comparison of the basalt spectra with the spectra of stony asteroids and meteorites
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 117-123.

The work describes the spectra of some basalt samples and volcanic lava samples obtained during optical experiments in the laboratory. The task of measuring terrestrial rock reflectance spectra and their comparison with the spectra of meteoroids and asteroids is extremely important. It is related both to the Solar system body origin and evolution problem, and the problem of detecting space bodies dangerous for the Earth. Researchers from many countries have accumulated extensive experimental and observational material as far as the comparison between spectral and photometric peculiarities of basic terrestrial rocks, stony asteroids, and meteorites. We conducted the measuring of the lava and basalts reflectance spectra, based on the methods previously used for the experiments on physical simulation of photometric and spectral characteristics of satellite and asteroid surfaces. In the presented research we used a small-size monochromator with a 3–4 nm/mm dispersion concave diffraction grating. As a receiving instrument, we used a photoconductor which is sensitive within the range of 400–900 nm. The measurements were carried out in the system of coordinates connected with the surface under study. The work presents the results of measuring the spectra reflected by the lava samples collected in the caldera of Teide, Tenerife, and also the spectra of reflection by a number of terrestrial basalt samples. We also analyzed data of the S-asteroid spectra acquired from observations, as well as the experimental data on stony meteorites. The analysis resulted in marking the areas on the plane “wavelength-albedo” which occupy these surfaces. The results we obtained are close to the multiple data obtained by different researchers. The simplest comparative analysis of volcanic lava and basalt spectra with the spectra of stony meteorites and asteroids shows, that visibly they are sufficiently similar.

Keywords: basalts, volcanic lava, S-asteroids, stony meteorites, spectra, optical region, comparison.

» Affiliations
1 Ryazan State University, Ryazan, 390000, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: a.murtazov@rsu.edu.ru
» References
  1. Oetking P. Photometric studies of diffuse reflecting surfaces with applications to the brightness of the moon. J. of Geophys. Research, 1966, vol. 71, pp. 2505–2513.
  2. Chapman D., Morrison B., Zellner B. Surface properties of asteroids: A synthesis of polarimetry, radiometry, and spectrophotometry. Icarus, 1975, vol. 25, pp. 104-–130.
  3. Busarev V.V. New reflectance spectra of 40 asteroids: A comparison with the previous results and an interpretation. Solar system research, 2016, vol. 50, pp. 13–23. doi: 10.1134/S0038094616010019
  4. Hiroi T., et al. Modeling of S-type asteroid spectra using primitive achondrites and iron meteorites. Icarus, 1993, vol. 102, iss. 1, pp. 107–116. doi: 10.1006/icar.1993.1036
  5. Vernazza P., et al. Compositional differences between meteorites and near-Earth asteroids. Nature, 2008, vol. 454, pp. 858–860. doi: 10.1038/nature07154
  6. Trigo-Rodriguez J.M., et al. UV to far-IR reflectance spectra of carbonaceous chondrites. I. Implications for remote characterization of dark primitive asteroids targeted by sample-return missions. MNRAS, 2013, vol. 437, iss. 1, pp. 227–240. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stt1873
  7. Cloutis E.A., Gaffey M.J., Moslow T.F. Spectral reflectance properties of Carbon-Bearing materials. Icarus, 1994, vol. 107, pp. 276–287. doi: 10.1006/icar.1994.1023
  8. Cloutis E.A., Hiroi T., Gaffey M.J., Alexander C.M.O’D., Mann P. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 1. CI chondrites. Icarus, 2011, vol. 212, pp. 180–209. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.12.009
  9. Kuryshev V.I., Murtazov A.K., Vereshchagin S.I. Modelirovanie fotometricheskikh kharakteristik astronomicheskikh ob”ektov [Modeling of photometric characteristics of astronomical objects]. Izvestiya vuzov SSSR. Priborostroenie [Izvestiya Vuzov USSR. Instrument making], 1985, vol. 28, pp. 81–85. (In Russian)
  10. Murtazov A.K. Physical simulation of space objects’ spectral characteristics for solving the reverse problem of their photometry. American J. of Modern Physics, 2013, vol. 2, iss. 6, pp. 282–286. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.12
  11. Murtazov A.K. Physical simulation of asteroid and artificial Earth satellite surface optical properties. Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions (AApTr), 2016, vol. 29, iss. 4, pp. 519–528.
  12. Murtazov A.K., Efimov A.V. Laboratory measurements of volcanic lava spectra in comparison with spectra of meteoroids. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. “Meteoroids-2016”. Noordwijk, Netherlands, 6–10 June, 2016.
  13. Busarev V.V., Taran M.N. O vozmozhnom proiskhozhdenii Fe3$+$ v meteorite Chelyabinsk [On the possible origin of Fe3$+$ in the Chelyabinsk meteorite]. In: Materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferentsii “Meteorit Chelyabinsk — god na Zemle” [Proc. of the All-Russian Scientific Conf. “Meteorite Chelyabinsk — year on Earth”]. Chelyabinsk, 2014, pp. 402–412. (In Russian)
  14. McFadden L.A. et al. Vesta’s Pinaria region: Original basaltic achondrite material derived from mixing upper and lower crust. Icarus, 2015, vol. 259, pp. 150–161. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.07.003
  15. Pieters C.M., Ammannito E., et al. Distinctive space weathering on Vesta from regolith mixing processes. Nature, 2012, vol. 491, pp. 79–82. doi: 10.1038/nature11534
  16. Moroz L.V., et al. Optical effects of regolith processes on s-asteroids as simulated by laser shots on ordinary chondrite and other mafic materials. Icarus, 1996, vol. 122, pp. 366–382. doi: 10.1006/icar.1996.0130
  17. Johnson T.V., Fanale F.P. Optical properties of carbonaceous chondrites and their relationship to asteroids. J. of geophys. research, 1973, vol. 78, iss. 2, pp. 8507–8518.

 

Subjects: physics

Safarov A.G.1,2
Conditions for educational anomalous tail of comet
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 124-134.

The time and velocity of ejection of dust particles of anomalous tails from cometary nuclei are determined. It is revealed that some comets cause the formation of an anomalous tail is the collision of their comet nucleus with other bodies of the solar system. An investigation of the formation conditions of the anomalous tail shows that the dust ejection velocity from the comet nucleus C/1851 U1, C/1885 X2, C/1921 E1, C/1925 V1, C/1930 D1, C/1975 V2, 2P/1924, 6P/1950 and 1976, 10P/1930, 7P/1933 and 35P/1939 O1 can be explained by the sublimation of the ice of the nucleus and the removal of dust by molecules. It was found that the comets C/1823 Y1, C/1882 R1, C/1883 D1, C/1888 R1, C/1892 E1, D/1894 F1, C/1932 M1, C/1954 O1, C/1968 H1, C/1969 T1, C/1973 E1, C/1995 O1, C/1999 S4, C/2004 Q2, 7P/1869 G1, 10P/1930, 19P/1918, 26P/1927 F1, 67P/1982, 73P/1930 J1, 96P/1986 J1 and 109P/1862 O1, formation of the anomalous tail and splitting of the comet nucleus was observed in one appearance. Nuclear splitting 70 {\%} of these comets occurred as a result of a collision of the comet’s nucleus with a meteoroid or fragments of their nuclei.

Keywords: comet, nuclei, anomalous tail, velocity, ejection of dust particles, collision.

» Affiliations
1 Tajik National University, Dushanbe, 734025, Republic of Tajikistan
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: aj_safarov@mail.ru
» References
  1. Ibadinov Kh.I., Safarov A.G. Skorosti vibrosa meteoroidnikh chastic iz yader komet [Ejection velocities of meteoroids particles from the nuclei of comets]. Dokladi Akademii nauk Respubliki Tadjikistan [Rep. of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan], 2015, vol. 58, no. 11. pp. 983–989.
  2. Orlov S.V. Kometi [Comets]. Moscow, ONTI Publ., 1935, 280 p.
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  5. Ibadinov Kh.I., Safarov A.G. Issledovanie skorosti izverjenie khupnojo pili iz yadra comet po nabludeniyam ikh anomalnogo khvosta [Investigation of the ejection velocity of big dust particles from comet nucleus on the basis of its anti tail observation]. Dokladi Akademii nauk Respubliki Tadjikistan [Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan], 2012, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 207–211.
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  8. Ibadinov Kh.I., Buriev A.M. Zakonomernosti deleniya yadra komet [The laws of comet nucleus splitting]. Izvestiya Akademii nauk Respubliki Tadjikistan. Otdel fiziko-matematicheskikh, khimicheskikh, geologicheskikh i tekhnicheskikh nauk [News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan. Department of the Physical, Mathematical, Geological and Technical Sciences], 2011, no. 3 (144), pp. 47–62.
  9. Jewitt D., Ishiguro M., Weaver H., Agarwal J., Mutchler M., Larson S. Habble space telescope Investigation main-belt comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro. The Astronomical Journal, 2014, vol. 147, pp. 117–129.
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  11. Grun E., Pailer N., Fechtig H., Kissel J. Orbital and physical characteristics of micrometeoroids in the inner Solar system as observed by Helios-1. Planet. Space Sci., 1980, vol. 28, pp. 333–349.
  12. Ibadinov Kh.I., Safarov A.G. Nekotorie zakonomernosti obrazovaniya anomalnogo khvosta komet [Some laws abnormal tail formation in the comets]. Izvestiya Akademii nauk Respubliki Tadjikistan. Otdel fiziko-matematicheskikh, khimicheskikh, geologicheskikh i tekhnicheskikh nauk [News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan. Department of the Physical, Mathematical, Geological and Technical Sciences], 2015, no. 4 (161), pp. 47–56.
  13. Ibadinov K.I., Buriev A.M., Safarov A.G. Nonstationary activity of comets nuclei. Astronomy and Astrophysical Transaction, 2012, vol. 27, iss. 3, pp. 499–502.
  14. Sekanina Z. Solar and heliospheric observatory sungrazing with prominent tails: evidence on dust-production peculiarities. Astrophysical Journal, 2000, vol. 545, December 10, pp. L69–L72.
  15. Melosh H.J. A speed limit for impact-ejected spalls. Lunar and Planet Sci. Absctr. Proc. of 15$^{th}$ Conf. 12-16 March, Houston. Tex., s.a. 1984, vol. 15, pp. 538-539.
  16. Ibadinov K.I., Buriev A.M., Safarov A.G., Rahmonov A.A. Active processes in cometary nucleus and new meteoroid swarms. Advances in Space Research, 2015, vol. 56, pp. 187–189.
  17. Ibadinov K.I., Safarov A.G. Svyaz meteoroidnikh roijov s obrazovaniem anomalnogo khvosta komet [Communication with meteoroid swarms of abnormal tail of the comets]. Vestnik TNU, seriya estestvennikh nauk [Bull. of TSU, Series of natural sciences], 2017, no. 1/2, pp. 111–115.

 

Subjects: physics

Sokolov L.L.1, Vasil’ev A.A.1, Petrov N.A.1, Pol V.G.2, Eskin B.B.1
Possibilities of asteroid deflection from collisions having regard to the resonant returns
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 135-139.

We have detected many possible collisions of hazardous asteroids (Apophis and others) with the Earth. Everhart integrator and DE430 model of Solar System are applied, the high-performance computational cluster of the Saint Petersburg State University used. The main characteristics of trajectories under study including relative positions and sizes of keyholes leading to collisions are practically stable with respect to small changes of motion model. We have detected possible collisions of Apophis with the Moon. We discuss the possibilities of moving asteroid into the region without keyholes using kinetic method. It is possible to deflect asteroid from collisions using timely practicable struck, taken into account fly-by effect under approaches to the Earth.

Keywords: asteroids, asteroid-comet hazard, trajectories, collisions.

» Affiliations
1 Saint Petersburg State University, St.-Petersburg, 198504, Russia
2 Lavochkin Association, Moscow region, Khimki, 141400, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: lsok@astro.spbu.ru
» References
  1. Ivashkin V.V., Stikhno K.A. O predotvrashchenii vozmozhnogo stolknoveniya asteroida Apofis s Zemley [On the Prevention of a possible collision of asteroid Apophis with the Earth]. Astronomicheskiy vestnik [Astronomical Bull.], 2009, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 502–516. (In Russian)
  2. Eysmont N.A., Boyarskiy M.N., Ledkov A.A., Nazirov R.R., Dankhem D., Shustov B.M. O vozmozhnosti navedeniya malykh asteroidov na opasnye nebesnye ob”ekty s ispol’zovaniem gravitatsionnogo manevra [On the possibility of targeting small asteroids to dangerous celestial objects using gravitational maneuver]. Astronomicheskiy vestnik [Astronomical Bull.], 2013, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 352–360. (In Russian)
  3. Sokolov L.L., Bashakov A.A., Pit’ev N.P. Osobennosti dvizheniya asteroida 99942 Apophis [Features of the motion of the asteroid 99942 Apophis]. Astronomicheskiy vestnik [Astronomical Bull.], 2008, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 20–29. (In Russian)
  4. Sokolov L.L., Bashakov A.A., Borisova T.P., Petrov N.A., Pit’ev N.P., Shaydulin V.Sh. Traektorii soudareniya asteroida Apofis s Zemley v XXI veke [The trajectories of the impact of the asteroid Apophis with the Earth in the 21st century]. Astronomicheskiy vestnik [Astronomical Bull.], 2012, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 311–320. (In Russian)
  5. Sokolov L.L., Borisova T.P., Vasil’ev A.A., Petrov N.A. Svoystva traektoriy soudareniya asteroidov s Zemley [Properties of trajectories of asteroids’ impact with the Earth]. Astronomicheskiy vestnik [Astronomical Bull.], 2013, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 441–447. (In Russian)
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Subjects: physics

Khutorovsky Z.N.1, Lukyanov A.P.1, Shilin V.D.1, Kolessa A.E.1, Shpitalnik M.Ts.1, Sorokin K.V.1
Analysis of Contribution of optical observatories of Russian Academy of Sciences to space surveillance in 2016–2017
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 140-147.

Optical measurements take an important part in the solving the main problem of near-Earth space control: maintaining the catalogue of space objects. Space objects considered depending on their size (magnitude), their support type and type of orbit. The article presents the main results of the optical network for 2016–2017. The main problems of analisis of effectivness of near-Earth space objects measurements by telescopes, and its current state are considered. The performance indicators are calculated using a new algorithm being developed in JSC Vimpel. In this article, telescopes a grouped according to their belonging to the operator organization.

Keywords: space objects, Low Earth orbit (LEO), High Earth orbit (HEO), a network of telescopes, task management, calculation of efficiency, performance indicators, space surveillance catalogue.

» Affiliations
1 Public Corp. “MAK Vympel”, Moscow, 125480, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: kikkolo@mail.ru
» References
  1. Khutorovsky Z.N., Boikov V.F., Pilaev L.N. Low-perigee satellite catalogue maintenace. In: Near-Earth astronomy (space debris). Moscow, Kosmoinform Pub., 1998, pp. 34–101. (In Russian)
  2. Lukyanov A.P., Lagutkiy V.N., Mal’tsev A.V., Kolesa A.E., Kim A.K., Ravdin S.S., Prooglo A.V., Molotov I.E., VikhristenkoA.M., Andrianov N.G. Regular optical measurements of LEO-satellites in Tiraspol, Kislovodsk and Moscow in 2013-2014. First results and perspectives. Ekologicheskiy vestnik nauchnykh tsentrov Chernomorskogo ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva [Ecological bulletin of reserch centers of Black sea economical cooperation], 2013. vol. 3, no. 4. pp. 101–105. (In Russian)
  3. Khutorovsky Z.N., Shpitalnik M.Ts., Kolesa A.E., Lukyanov A.P. Criterea and analisis of effectivness of space objects measurements by JSC Vimpel telescopes. In: Proc. Int. conf. “Near-Earth astronomy-2015”, 2015, pp. 250–255. (In Russian)
  4. El’yasberg P.E. Introduction into the theory of satellite motion. Moscow, Nauka Pub., 1964, 540 p. (In Russian)
  5. Ventzel E.S. Probability theory. Moscow, Knorus, 2010, 664 p. (In Russian)

 

Subjects: physics

Scherbina M.P.1, Busarev V.V.1, Barabaniv S.I.2
Spectrophotometric study of asteroids in 2016 and interpretation of their reflectance spectra
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 148-156.

We have carried out observation, calculation and analysis of low-resolution reflectance spectra ($R\approx $100) in the range of 0.35-0.92$mu$ m of two near-Earth asteroids (93768, 68216), and four main-belt asteroids (2 Pallas, 787 Moskva, 11 Partenope, 245 Tercidina). Observations of the asteroids were performed using 2-m telescope with a CCD-spectrograph of INASAN Terskol Observatory to determine or specify their taxonomic types and estimate heterogeneity in composition at different rotational phases. Qualitative estimates of spectral (taxonomic) types of 787 Moskva and both NEAs are made.

Keywords: asteroids, NEA, reflectance spectra, spectrometry, spectral type of asteroid.

» Affiliations
1 Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia
1 Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: morskayaa906@yandex.ru
» References
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Subjects: physics

Yakovenko Y.P.1, Kuleshov Y.P.1, Mishechkina N.B.1
Assessing the feasibility of asteroid surveillance using visualization diagram of Bowell formula
Ecological bulettin of research centers of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. 2017, no. 4, iss. 2, pp. 157-165.

On a plane passing through the Earth, the Sun and asteroid, in the elongation-surveillance range coordinate system, a diagram is constructed that consists of the isolines of diameters of detected asteroids, which are calculated by Bowell formula. When changing the values of the limiting magnitude of telescope and the asteroid albedo, the configuration of isolines on the diagram unalters. Using the asteroid motion trajectory constructed on the diagram, the feasibility of its continuous surveillance is assessed.

Keywords: asteroid-comet hazard, spacekraft, detection range, asteroid diameter, Bowell formula, visualization, constant diameter isolines

» Affiliations
1 JSC ‘Cometa Corp.’, Moscow, 127282, Russia
  Corresponding author’s e-mail: yrkulesh@yandex.ru
» References
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  2. A way of viewing the space between the Sun and the Earth that is inaccessible for observation by optical means located on Earth and in near-earth orbits, because of their exposure by the Sun, from a spacecraft placed in the Earth’s orbit at a constant distance from the Earth. Patent 2597028 RF 2016. (In Russian)
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